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Tech Tips, Tricks & Trivia

by 'Anil' Radhakrishna
An architect's notes, experiments, discoveries and annotated bookmarks.



This Week I Learned - Week #2 2022

Sunday, January 16, 2022

This Week I Learned - 

Nginx and HAProxy are popular reverse proxy servers that support features such as load balancing, SSL, and layer 7 routing. Nginx and HAProxy will typically run in containers inside the cluster, but can also be deployed to dedicated VMs outside of the cluster. This isolates the gateway from the rest of the workload, but incurs higher management overhead.

NGINX is now a part of F5, Inc.

* API Management is a turnkey solution for publishing APIs to external and internal customers. It provides features that are useful for managing a public-facing API, including rate limiting, IP restrictions, and authentication using Azure Active Directory or other identity providers. API Management doesn't perform any load balancing, so it should be used in conjunction with a load balancer such as Application Gateway or a reverse proxy. 

* The Configuration Management Database or CMDB is a crucial tool in IT Service Management and Security Operations. A Configuration Item or ‘CI’ is an entry in the CMDB that could be a server, a router, a switch, or even a piece of software. The CMDB is not one big table, but a collection of tables. Any worthwhile enterprise grade CMDB solution provides a visualization tool for the CMDB. CMDB is strictly concerned with configuration while Asset Management is concerned with cost, asset lifecycle, associated contracts such as warranties and service contracts, among other financial type information. Asset Management can be broken into two broad disciplines: Hardware Asset Management (HAM) and Software Asset Management (SAM). Software Asset Management relies on data in the CMDB. 

* The Github repository of Indian Railways data has JSON files on Stations, Trains & Schedules.

Aaron Swartz was involved in the development of the web feed format RSS, the Markdown publishing format, the organization Creative Commons, the website framework web.py, and joined the social news site Reddit six months after its founding. In October 2006, based largely on Reddit's success, his firm Not a Bug was acquired by Condé Nast Publications, owner of Wired magazine. He found corporate office life uncongenial and ultimately was asked to resign from the company.

* The Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha'apai volcano has erupted regularly over the past few decades. During events in 2009 and 2014/15 hot jets of magma and steam exploded through the waves. But these eruptions were small, dwarfed in scale by the January 2022 events. The 2014/15 eruption created a volcanic cone, joining the two old Hunga islands to create a combined island about 5km long.

* The global average surface temperature in 2021 reached its sixth-highest level since reliable temperature record-keeping began in 1880. 

* Bamboo is the fastest-growing plant on Earth. In fact, the Chinese moso bamboo can grow almost a meter in a single day. Bamboo also grows with constant diameter. 

* The hyoid bone (lingual bone or tongue-bone) is a horseshoe-shaped bone classed as an irregular bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage. It is the only bone in the human body that is not connected to any other bones nearby. The hyoid is anchored by muscles from the anterior, posterior and inferior directions, and aids in tongue movement and swallowing. The hyoid bone provides attachment to the muscles of the floor of the mouth and the tongue above, the larynx below, and the epiglottis and pharynx behind. Due to its position, the hyoid bone is not easily susceptible to fracture. In a suspected case of murder or physical abuse of an adult, a fractured hyoid strongly indicates throttling or strangulation. A study conducted from 2010 to 2016 found hyoid damage in just 16 of 264, or six percent, of cases of hangings.

* For humans and most primates, the philtrum survives only as a vestigial medial depression between the nose and upper lip. The human philtrum, bordered by ridges, also is known as the infranasal depression, but has no apparent function. That may be because most higher primates rely more on vision than on smell. In humans, the philtrum is formed where the nasomedial and maxillary processes meet during embryonic development. When these processes fail to fuse fully, a cleft lip may result. A flattened or smooth philtrum may be a symptom of fetal alcohol syndrome or Prader–Willi syndrome. A study of boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders found that a broader than average philtrum is one of a cluster of physical attributes associated with autism. The toothbrush moustache  made famous by Charlie Chaplin is also called philtrum moustache.

The practice of quarantine began during the 14th century, in an effort to protect coastal cities from plague epidemics.

* Hyderabad was founded in 1591 by Mohd. Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth ruler of the Golconda dynasty (1518-1687). The Mughals (1526-1857) are used as a blanket term for Muslim rule, but ironically, they were essentially enemies of the Golconda dynasty, which was eventually finished after Aurangzeb conquered and destroyed Hyderabad in 1687. The Nizams who were governors under the Mughals, took over afterwards for 430 years (1724-1948). 

* Osmania General Hospital and the Unani Hospital (1929) were both built during the reign of Hyderabad’s last Nizam Osman Ali Khan. Kachiguda railway station was built around 1916. A Belgian architect Monsieur Jasper designed OU’s Arts college. 

* In 1908, Hyderabad witnessed its most devastating flood in our recorded history when the recorded rainfall touched close to a staggering 19 inches of rain by 29 September, 1908. The city was ravaged due to what was possibly worst natural calamity recorded in its history. The great Musi river floods not only damaged over 50,000 homes, but also led to the death of reportedly over 15,000 people.

* Study an accomplished artist's work and take advantage of what he knows, and put your own original ideas in the drawing. This is the road that leads to success in art. - Mitchell Smith, The Art of Caricaturing (1941)

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This Week I Learned - Week #1 2022

Saturday, January 08, 2022

This Week I Learned - 

* In addition to budget monitoring with AWS Budgets, you can add actions to your budgets to control IAM and Service Control Policy permissions as well as AWS resources when thresholds are exceeded (or forecasted to exceed). Your first two action-enabled budgets are free (regardless of the number of actions you configure per budget) per month. Afterwards each subsequent action-enabled budget will incur a $0.10 daily cost.

* Internet Gateway (IGW) allows instances with public IPs to access the internet. 

* Egress-only internet gateway is a stateful gateway to provide egress only access for IPv6 traffic from the VPC to the Internet.

* NAT Gateway (NGW) allows instances with no public IPs to access the internet.

* Virtual private gateway is the VPN concentrator on the Amazon side of the Site-to-Site VPN connection. 

* You use a virtual private gateway or a transit gateway as the gateway for the Amazon side of the Site-to-Site VPN connection.

* For VPCs with a hardware VPN connection or Direct Connect connection, instances can route their Internet traffic down the virtual private gateway to your existing datacenter. From there, it can access the Internet via your existing egress points and network security/monitoring devices.

* IPv6 traffic is not supported for VPN connections on a virtual private gateway (VGW).

* Transit gateway is the transit hub that can be used to interconnect your VPCs and on-premises networks. You use a transit gateway or virtual private gateway as the gateway for the Amazon side of the Site-to-Site VPN connection. The cloud-based network gateway allows customers to connect Virtual Private Clouds (VPCs) across different accounts in a hub and spoke topology.

* A Transit Gateway (TGW launched in late 2018) allows a ‘full mesh’ of routes to be passed between VPCs and VPN terminations that are not reliant on the VPC peering (with its transitive routing limitations), providing the ability to connect thousands (up to 5000) of VPCs and on-premises networks together, across multiple accounts to a single gateway. 

* Direct Connect Gateway (DGW) builds upon VGW capabilities adding the ability to connect VPCs in one region to a Direct Connect in another region.

Multiple VPCs spread across multiple regions sharing the same Direct Connect

Logically provides Fact Checking as a Service. It claims to provide technology for Deepfake Detection and Synthetic Text Detection, True Text Detection. Persistent exposure to belief-confirming content can result in a narrow-minded view of the world or a problem. According to Logically, its machine learning algorithms are capable of determining political bias within text.

USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data), sometimes referred to as "quick codes" or "feature codes", is a communications protocol used by GSM cellular telephones to communicate with the mobile network operator's computers. It is a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) protocol that is used to send text messages. USSD Menus are two-way flash messages; the user opens a menu and picks from a set number of options.

* Dragon Fruit is also called “desert crop’’ as there is no need for much water.  Farmers get a yield within a 9-12 months of its planting and this can continue for up to 20 years.

* NUUP (National Unified USSD Platform) is a USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) based mobile banking service from National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) that brings together diverse ecosystem partners such as Banks & TSPs (Telecom Service Providers). The USSD code to access the NUUP is *99#. The upper limit on *99# is Rs. 5000 per transaction. A few handsets do not support USSD service. Telecom Service Providers  charge the customer for using *99# service.  TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) has set a maximum ceiling of Rs. 0.50 / transaction for using the *99# service.

* A Unified Payment Interface (UPI) is a smartphone application that allows users to transfer money between bank accounts. It is a single-window mobile payment system developed by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI). As of November 2021, there are 274 banks available on UPI. 

* Every month, India sees about 80,000 frauds orchestrated through UPI, with gullible victims duped into voluntarily transferring up to Rs 200 crore.

* Theranos, the firm found by Elizabeth Holmes, promised it would revolutionise the healthcare industry with a test that could detect conditions such as cancer and diabetes with only a few drops of blood. But these claims began to unravel in 2015 after a Wall Street Journal investigation reported that its core blood-testing technology did not work. Holmes was dubbed the "next Steve Jobs" by Inc. magazine, trumpeted by Forbes as being "the world's youngest self-made female billionaire", and featured in Time magazine's coveted list of the most influential people in 2015. She founded Theranos as a teenager, shortly after dropping out of chemical engineering at Stanford University. The firm officially ceased operations in 2018 following the scandal.

* Wire fraud is a relatively wide-ranging federal crime in the US, which involves using electronic communications, such as emails, to make false statements to get something from another person - usually money. 

* Otosclerosis, a degenerative hearing condition, is relatively common - around one to two percent of us have it. When sound waves hit your eardrum, it vibrates and that vibration is sent behind your eardrum to three tiny bones - the malleus, the incus and the stapes, the smallest bone in your body. Those bones then send the vibration into your cochlea - a labyrinth of bones that sits deep in your ear. And this is the magical moment - when your cochlea turns the mechanical waves into electrical waves that your brain can process - and you hear. If you have otosclerosis, when the vibrations reach your stapes, it doesn't vibrate. That's because otosclerosis is a disease that affects the bone that surrounds the stapes. It affects one group more than others - women who have recently had a baby. That's because of the effect of pregnancy hormones that fast-track the disease.  - BBC

* For the Italy set vehicle chases in the James Bond movie No Time to Die, the production utilized about 8,400 gallons or 31,797 litres of Coca-Cola poured on ancient streets in Matera, Italy at a cost to the production of about EUR 60,000 euros (equal to USD $77,000, Australian $100,000 and UK sterling £50,000). The reason: Coke acts as a liquid adhesive. For example, it was used for the motorbike jump scene in order to make the ramp surface sticky so as to deter the bike from sliding. Reportedly, the production spilt the soft drink all over the streets of Matera for the bike and car chases requiring a big clean up job afterwards. Stunt Coordinator Lee Morrison said: "I've been spraying Coca-Cola on slippery surfaces for a very long time" with the drink able to "make things look very clean after it washes off". Farmers in India have used Coca-Cola and Pepsi as substitutes for pesticide.

* An N95 mask needs to be NIOSH certified. NIOSH stands for the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and is a division of the US CDC. NIOSH is responsible for N95 mask approval and certifies an N95 as a legitimate particulate respirator.

Most western countries have increased their retirement ages to 65 and 70 and the US has outlawed compulsory retirement altogether.

* The average age of a Nobel Prize winner is 62. The average age of a CEO in a Fortune 500 company is 63. The average age of popes is 76. And, in India, the average age of the cabinet is 60.

* Out of 5.89 crore ITRs (compared to 5.95 in AY 2020-21) filed for AY 2021-22 (2020-21 fiscal), 49.6 per cent of these are ITR1 (2.92 crore), 9.3 per cent are ITR2 (54.8 lakh), 12.1 per cent are ITR3 (71.05 lakh), 27.2 per cent are ITR4 (1.60 crore), 1.3 per cent are ITR5 (7.66 lakh). 5.95 crore. As many as 31.05 lakh ITRs filed were on the last day or January 10, 2021. Besides, 2.58 lakh ITR-6 and 0.67 lakh ITR7 were filed.

* Over 45.7 per cent of these ITRs have been filed using the online ITR form on the portal and the balance have been uploaded using the ITR created from the offline software utilities. 

* ITR Form 1 (Sahaj) and ITR Form 4 (Sugam) are simpler forms that cater to a large number of small and medium taxpayers. Sahaj can be filed by an individual having income up to Rs 50 lakh and who receives income from salary, one house property/other sources (interest etc). ITR-4 can be filed by individuals, HUFs and firms with total income up to Rs 50 lakh and having income from business and profession. ITR-2 is filed by people having income from residential property), ITR-3 by people having income as profits from business/profession, ITR-5 by LLPs and ITR-6 and 7 by businesses and trusts respectively.

Unique experiences and skill combinations are actually an asset

* “The less you fear, the more power you will have and the more fully you will live.” - The 50th Law

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This Week I Learned - Week #52 2021

Friday, December 31, 2021

This Week I Learned - 

Azure Cognitive Services Translator can transliterate/converts text in one language from one script to another script.

* Gmail protects your email by making sure messages you send and receive are authenticated. Unauthenticated messages might be sent to spam. Gmail authenticates messages with SPF (Sender Policy Framework), DKIM (DomainKeys Identified Mail), and DMARC or Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance. 

* SPF specifies which hosts are allowed to send messages from a given domain by creating an SPF record. DKIM allows the sender to electronically sign legitimate emails in a way that can be verified by recipients using a public-key. DMARC helps mail administrators prevent hackers and other attackers from spoofing their organization and domain. Spoofing is a type of attack in which the From address of an email message is forged. A spoofed message appears to be from the impersonated organization or domain.

* Messages that aren't authenticated aren't necessarily spam.

Best practice for sending email to Gmail - Check regularly to make sure your domain isn’t listed as unsafe with Google Safe Browsing. To check your domain status, enter your domain in the Safe Browsing site status page. Also check any domain that’s linked to yours. 

* You can use Postmaster Tools to track data on large volumes of emails sent and find data about your sending domain. You can view different dashboards to understand details like Gmail delivery errors, spam reports, feedback loop, and more.

* The primary function of emoji is to fill in emotional cues otherwise missing from typed conversation.  Many companies did not begin to take emoji seriously until Google employees requested that Unicode look into the possibility of a uniform emoji set.

Source: Internet

* Wingdings, a font invented by Charles Bigelow and Kris Holmes, was first used by Microsoft in 1990.

With more than 1 billion people in the world with disabilities, there is no limit to what people can achieve when technology reflects the diversity of all those who use it.

* Amazon has updated its Alexa voice assistant after it "challenged" a 10-year-old girl to touch a coin to the prongs of a half-inserted plug.  - BBC

* The TTD’s IT wing, with the help of Jio and TCS has shifted the online darshan ticketing systems to cloud-based technology. A total of 2.60 lakh free darshan tickets were booked by devotees in less than 14 minutes -- after the Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams (TTD) released the online quota of the Slotted Sarva Darshan (SSD) tokens for January 2022. 

* By default, most stereo audio experiences send some sounds to the right channel or speaker and some sounds to the left channel. Windows supports mono audio, so that you can send all sounds to both channels. This allows users who have partial hearing loss or deafness in one ear to hear all sounds from the PC so they don't miss anything.

* Browser-level lazy-loading for iframes is now standardized and is also supported in Chrome and Chromium-based browsers. Add loading="lazy" to iframe tag to enable the feature.        

* California produces 80 percent of the world’s almonds. Almond farms need one critical resource that many people might not think about to grow all those almonds: bees. 

* Poor nutrition and illness in childhood limit human growth. As a consequence, the average height of a population is strongly correlated with living standards in a population.  

* A 2011 Harvard study found people assign higher value to self-assembled goods (willing to pay 63% more vs. pre-assembled).

Advertising is salesmanship in print

* Those people of the Backward Class whose annual income exceeds Rs.8 Lakhs fall under the Creamy Layer while those whose annual income is less than Rs.8 Lakhs belong to Non-Creamy Layer

National Translation Mission (NTM) is a Government of India scheme to establish translation as an industry in general and, to facilitate higher education by making knowledge texts accessible to students and academics in Indian languages in particular.

* Among scooters, TVS Jupiter has a high fuel tank capacity of 6 litres. Popular motorcycles in India have a fuel tank capacity in the range of 10-14 litres. Mahindra Mojo has a fuel efficiency of 36.25kmpl and a 21 litre fuel tank. The BMW R1200 GS Adventure motorbike has a 33-litre fuel tank – making it a motorcycle with the biggest fuel tank in India. Its German manufacturer claims a fuel efficiency of 20kmpl. That’s a whopping 660km riding range for a motorcycle with a 1170cc engine. 

* The highest 24-hour rainfall period in India was 1,168 mm (46.0 inches) in Aminidivi in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep on 6 May 2004. 

* The Mumbai floods of 2005 were caused by the eighth heaviest-ever recorded 24-hour rainfall figure of 944 mm (37.17 inches) which lashed the metropolis on 26 July 2005, and intermittently continued for the next day. 644mm (25.35 inches) was received within the 12-hour period between 8 am and 8 pm. The floods caused a direct loss of about ₹5.50 billion (€80 million or US$100 million) & claimed 1,094  human lives. 

* It is estimated that Mumbai has lost about 40% of its mangroves between 1995 and 2005, some to builders and some to encroachment (slums). Sewage and garbage dumps have also destroyed mangroves. The Bandra-Kurla complex in particular was created by replacing such swamps. 

*  "You must take life the way it comes at you and make the best of it." — Yann Martel, Life of Pi

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SAP on Azure: The Big Picture - Notes

The 90-minute Pluralsight course SAP on Azure: The Big Picture provides a "just enough" backgrounder on SAP & options for hosting SAP workloads on major cloud providers, mainly Azure.

My paraphrased notes - 

Four common options with major cloud providers:

  • HEC or HANA Enterprise Cloud is a bundled managed service from SAP covering SAP application management, infrastructure services & security services
  • AWS is the first public cloud provider in the market to offer SAP in cloud
  • Google Cloud
  • Azure 

AWS, Azure & Google Cloud can run the following SAP products:
1. SAP S/4 HANA – SAP HANA
2. SAP BW / SAP Hybris
3. SAP Business Suite / SAP Business One
4. SAP NetWeaver

In addition to the above products, Azure can also run SAP HANA Enterprise Cloud, so you can get that SAP contract and still run your SAP instance on Azure. 

SAP solutions on Azure can run on a variety of database such as: HANA, Oracle, SQL Server, or PaaS databases like Azure SQL, & CosmosDB
Modules in SAP solutions can be categorized into Functional & Technical Modules

ABAP or Advanced Business Application Programming is an event-driven programming language used for SAP development which runs in the SAP ABAP runtime environment.

NetWeaver is a software stack and a full runtime environment to run your SAP products on.

SAP technical components include the presentation layer, the application layer, and the database layer

Best practices -

Governance
1. A dedicated subscription for SAP systems and related resources
3. Create the subscription for SAP in an Azure region that will have all of the planned services available
4. For SAP DR use the same subscription
5. Use Azure locks to lock critical SAP resources
6. Recommend using Tag SAP resources 
7. Create a Resource Group per SAP SID 
8. Recommend using Azure Policy to enforce security & compliance for infrastructure
9. Follow the least privilege access model with RBAC 

Networking 
1. Hub and Spoke Topology
2. Deploy SAP as Spoke
3. Separate landscapes (dev, prod, etc.) using VNETs (instead of Subscriptions)
4. Use VNet Peering when VM's in separate landscapes need to talk across VNets
5. Avoid using PIPs if possible
6. Deploy ExpressRoute for cloud & on-premises connectivity
7. Use a Next Generation Firewall (NGFW) to secure north/south & east/west traffic 
8. Use NSGs to secure traffic between subnets

Compute
1. Ensure proper sizing was done with SAP Sizer & SAPS before deploying VMs
2. Be sure to use certified VMs for production (SAP Note 1928533)
3. Windows and Linux are both supported on Azure (SLES, REHL, Win Server)
4. Follow SAP Notes for specific OS parameters/configuration
5. Utilize Azure native tooling for patching, inventory & change tracking
6. Use managed disks with SAP VMs
7. Enable encrypt OS & Data disks (BitLocker for Windows & DM-Crypt for Linux)
8. Use Accelerated networking on SAP VM NICs
9. Deploy all SAP VMs in Availability Sets for HA

Storage
1. Use premium Managed disks for supported SAP Systems (Note 1928533)
2. Select premium Managed disks based on IOPS & disk throughput requirements 
3. Ensure Storage Service Encryption (SSE) is enabled for Managed Disks & snapshots 
4. Use Write Accelerator for database Logs when using M series VMs (eg: /hana/log )
5. Mount Azure storage disk by using UUID (universally unique identifier)
6. Use Windows storage spaces or LINUX-LVM to stripe disks & aggregate IOPS, throughput & storage capacity
7. For Windows Shared Storage use Azure Files & Scale-Out File Server (SOFS for HA) 
8. For Linux / HANA Shared Storage use Azure NetApp files (ANF) or NFS Cluster

Backup
1. Use "Azure Backup" to protect SAP VMs
2. Use "Azure Backup" to protect SQL databases
3. Use "Azure Backup for SAP HANA" to protect HANA databases

Monitoring
1. For infrastructure monitoring use "Azure Monitor for SAP Solutions"
2. Use ABAP SDK for Azure to get near real time telemetry from SAP
3. For HANA DB or SQL telemetry use "Azure Monitor for SAP Solutions" 
4. For Pacemaker cluster telemetry use "Azure Monitor for SAP Solutions" 
5. To monitor multiple SAP HANA instances or multiple Pacemaker clusters use "Azure Monitor for SAP Solutions"
6. For real-time monitoring of SAP apps and DBs, use SAP Solution Manager

Disaster recovery
1. For SAP DR use the same subscription 
2. Ensure that primary and DR regions are Region Pairs 
3. Utilize Traffic Manager or Azure Front Door for automatic failover of any public internet traffic
4. Highly recommended to deploy dual Express Routes across primary and DR region for cloud to on-premises failover 
5. Utilize Azure Site Recovery for disaster recovery of SAP Systems
6. For HANA database disaster recovery utilize HANA System Replication (HSR)
7. For SQL database disaster recovery utilize SQL Always On
8. For Oracle database disaster recovery utilize Oracle Data Guard
9. For NFS disaster recovery utilize Rsync, File Replication, or Cloud Sync

Capacity sizing for Azure is based on SAPS or SAP Application Performance Standard, a hardware-independent unit of measurement that describes the performance of a system configuration in the SAP environment. It is derived from the Sales and Distribution SD-Benchmarks, where 100 SAPS is defined as 2,000 fully business processed order line items per hour.

Quick Sizer is a free web-based tool built by SAP in partnership with platform partners such as Azure to help with sizing your SAP instance.

For greenfield deployments, Terraform (to set up the infrastructure as code) & Ansible (configuration as code tool) can be used.
Related:
A Bird's Eye View of SAP ERP Products

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Oracle Autonomous Database for Dummies - Notes

Wednesday, December 29, 2021

Excerpts & paraphrased notes from the book Oracle Autonomous Database for Dummies (PDF, 83 pages) -

An autonomous database is a cloud database that uses ML to eliminate the human labor associated with database tuning, security, backups, updates, and other routine management tasks.  It combines the dynamic agility of  the cloud with the intelligent responsiveness of applied, adaptive machine learning (ML). 

The design goal is to make the database intelligent and self-reliant so as to minimize or eliminate human labor  — and associated human error  — and ensure data safety and optimal performance.

The core attributes of Autonomous Database  — self-driving, self-securing, and self-repairing. At startup, it automatically establishes a triple-mirrored scale-out configuration in one regional cloud data center, with an optional full standby copy in another region.

By applying software updates in a rolling fashion across nodes of the cluster, it keeps the application online during updates of the database, clusterware, operating system (OS), virtual machine (VM), hypervisor, or firmware.

Autonomous Database is composed of the following 3 cloud database services:

  1. Autonomous Data Warehouse (AWD) - optimized for analytical processing.
  2. Autonomous Transaction Processing  (ATP) - simplifies database operations for OLTP and real-time analytical applications. 
  3. Oracle Autonomous JSON Database  (AJD) - to develop JSON-centric applications

Oracle Autonomous Database consists of the latest Oracle database software with all the best practices automatically configured for specific workloads. It also includes database options like Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), Oracle Multitenant for the best performance and availability, and Oracle Database Vault and Oracle Data Safe to guarantee security for your data. The database software runs on Exadata. 

Because the Autonomous Database is based on the Oracle Database, and it’s running on the Oracle Exadata Database platform, it’s able to run both online transaction processing (OLTP) and analytic workloads up to 100 times faster.

Examples of Automation that is unique to Oracle Autonomous Database:

• Performance tuning

• Automatic indexing

• Autoscaling

Oracle infrastructure and Autonomous Database are both designed to deliver 99.995 percent availability including planned maintenance

Oracle ADW is integrated with Oracle Analytics.

Oracle Autonomous Database can be deployed on Oracle’s public cloud in a shared or dedicated infrastructure. It’s also available on-premises on Oracle’s Cloud@Customer infrastructure. 

On-premises Oracle data management workloads are 100 percent compatible with Oracle Cloud.

Organizations can use OCI to support zero-data-loss architectures like Oracle’s Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA), as well as scale-out architectures like Cassandra.

OCI regions generally contain three ADs. These ADs are stand-alone data centers located about 19 miles (30 kilometers) from each other and connected by high-bandwidth private networking.

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